- bonding resulting from electrostatic attraction of negatively and positively charged anions and cations.
Examples: peridot, topaz, garnet (note that the single silicate tetrahedra in these gems join together with ionic bonds, however the atoms in the tetrahedra usually have covalent bonds)
- bonding as a result of the sharing of outer shell electrons so as to obtain a suitable outer shell configuration in each atom.
Examples: diamond, emerald, tourmaline, quartz
- in metallic bonding, the atoms are closely packed; electrons in the higher energy level shells are shared between several atoms and are so loosely held that that they can readily drift from one atom to another.
Examples: gold, silver, platinum
Van der Waals Bonding
- this bonding arises as a weak secondary attraction between certain molecules formed by the transfer or sharing of electrons.
Examples: talc, soapstone
- the smallest individual particle that retains the distinctive properties of a given chemical element.
- a combination of atoms of one or more elements with atoms of another element in a specific ratio.
e- the smallest unit that has all the properties of a particular compound.
- the combining power of an ion; the number of electrons which the atom needs to lose or gain to obtain a stable outer shell.
- the ability of a specific chemical substance to crystallize with more than one type of structures known as polymorphi